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Kochs and the John Birch Society: a Love Story

Meet Fred Koch, a founding member of the John Birch Society

 

Most John Birch Society scoundrels are buried deep in the recesses of American history, known only to politics junkies, history wonks and me, a Birch kid.

 

There is one exception however, a Birch name that echoes across today’s political landscape: Fred C. Koch, founding member and national council member.

 

Before Koch’s sons―David and Charles―became synonymous with 2000s corporate power, Koch built a fortune from an oil drilling techniques he developed. When oil companies in the United States ignored him, Koch looked elsewhere.

 

In 1929, he landed a $5,000,000 contract for his company to build fifteen oil refineries in Russia, Joseph Stalin’s Communist Russia

 

Koch supervised the refinery installations, traveling extensively across the country over three years. He claimed that his hatred for Communism grew out of his Russian experiences, but he had pocketed $500,000 (his part of the company’s profits) before his outrage set in. That money, $8,000,000 in today’s dollars made Fred Koch a very rich man.

 

Ironically, the wealth of the Koch family came from a brutal Communist dictatorship. Hardly the image of “free enterprise” the Kochs invoke so passionately.

 

In 1960, thirty years after he took Communist money and parleyed it into an even bigger fortune, Koch wrote his book, A Businessman Looks at Communism, in which he rails against labor unions and civil rights efforts as part of the Communist plot to take over America.

 

“Labor Unions have long been a Communist goal,” Koch wrote. “The effort is frequently made to have the worker do as little as possible for the money he receives. This practice alone can destroy our country.” (p. 16)

 

My father, who served on the John Birch Society National Council with Fred Koch, had identical views on labor unions.

“As long as there is breath in my body,” Dad vowed, “there will never be a union in my company. I’ll board it up first. Fred (Koch) sees it like I do, one hundred percent.”

 

Koch had equally damning views of civil rights. “The colored man looms large in the Communist plan to take over America,” he said (p. 25) and “it will use the colored people by getting a vicious race war started.”

 

Koch’s views on civil rights were identical to those of the John Birch Society. Early in the civil rights movement, the Birch founder labeled Dr. Martin Luther King a Communist and marshaled the Birch leadership to fight every piece of civil rights legislation.

 

Fred Koch died in 1967, leaving his company and his vast fortune to his four sons: Freddie, Charles, David and Bill who spent the next twenty years battling over the estate.  Eventually, David and Charles emerged with control over Koch Industries, one of the largest privately-held corporations in the country. The sons acquired dozens of companies and diversified their fossil fuel assets into every commodity from silicon chips to toilet paper. Koch Industries continues to build its corporate wealth (and the Koch brothers’ personal wealth) with government contracts and government tax breaks.

 

The Koch brothers have enormous personal fortunes, somewhere around $40 billion dollars each in net worth. They are investing hundreds of millions of dollars in their favorite causes, right-wing, libertarian, anti-government ones.

 

David identified himself as the wallet behind Americans for Prosperity, the big umbrella for Freedom Works and the Tea Party. Charles founded the Cato Institute, a powerful think-tank specializing in selling right-wing policies on everything from taxes to entitlements.

Their father must be proud. They’re re-shaping the United States into the kind of country Fred wanted―a country with a pint-sized federal government and none of the expense of Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid or any other social program.

This libertarian utopia would free businesses to make a profit unrestrained by regulation. Corporate taxes and taxes on the rich would be tiny, allowing vast accumulations of wealth for the wealthy. Workers incomes would be set by corporations without the requirements of minimum wages and union scale.

 

If my father were still alive, he’d be crowing at the momentum of the Koch machine. I can hear him.

They are taking the country back. It’s about time.”

 

The ultimate irony of the Koch Brothers is this: they are spending hundreds of millions of dollars to subvert the country that helped make them so fabulously wealthy.

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  1. MCP

    You are a shelter from the storm. Your experiences are heart wrenching. I hope you continue to share your wisdom and analysis of your life experiences with us.

  2. James Dunbar

    Citizens United is the beginning of the end of freedom for the 99% of us who cannot influence who is tapped to run, what opinion can be swayed via videos. The Koch Brothers are symptoms of a society bought and paid for by corporate greed. It is not enough to have $35B when for a few hundred thousand dollars more you can buy another senator who in turn will deregulate and enable you to make another $5B.

    The Koch Brothers. Philanthropists…yes! Also great polluters.

  3. John Bevilaqua

    More information is coming out every year about the role of Maj Gen Edwin A. Walker of the Dallas John Birch Society in the JFK Assassination. I think you are on to something very important here. Walker was the grandson of Fred Koch’s financial patron and sponsor Charles de Ganahl and in return Fred named his first born son Charles de Ganahl Koch. And Walker was a contributor to The American Mercury Magazine when it was published right in Wichita, KS where the Koch headquarters were located. I believe that it was Fred Koch who really owned or sponsored that magazine during that period when it was run by Rev. Gordon Winrod from Defenders of the Christian Faith in Wichita, KS. http://karws.gso.uri.edu/jfk/the_critics/Whitmey/Man.html Here is the citation about Walker and the de Ganahl family links: “[Dr. Charles de Ganahl], whose father came to America from the Austrian Tyrolean region, remained loyal to the Confederacy after the Civil War and moved to Mexico for several years.” “The Ganahls can be traced back to the 1300s in Austria. They owned various enterprises, among them, cotton spinning and milling. Of his 10 children, Johann Ulrich Ganahl (1725-1772) had two sons — Johann and Joseph — who rose to prominence. Joseph’s descendants were those who struck out to America. In 1803, Charles Ganahl’s grandfather, Joseph Ganahl Von Zanzenberg (1754-1833), an Austrian doctor of law and town clerk, received his Patent of Nobility from Holy Roman Emperor Francis II for service during the war with Napoleon. In 1816, his son, Johann Joseph, came to Augusta, and then Savannah, Ga. for the Ganahl Mills. He opted to drop the noble title and only use Ganahl, as a sign of his democratic beliefs. He married Charlotte Elizabeth Conn of Augusta, and of their nine children, four lived past childhood — John Henry, Charles, Joseph and Frank.” One of Dr. Charles de Ganahl’s grandsons was right-wing Maj. Gen. Edwin Anderson Walker, whom Lee Harvey Oswald attempted to assassinate. (Life was rarely dull for members of the Ganahl family. By Irene Van Winkle. West Kerr Current, 2006.)

    1. cynthia curran

      True, people tend to forget the book Suburban Warriors are here the John Birch Society was popular in Orange County Ca. The OC had few minorities in those days mainly Mexican and in the 1940′s they sometimes went to different schools than Whites.. The right had a n hold in Orange County until about the last decade since it was rural unitl the late 1960′s. The Republican Registered has slipped from 55 in 1990 to about 43 percent today because a lot of whites that supported more the hard right moved to cheaper places like Texas. There is still a hard right in Orange County Ca but not like the old days. Also, the OC has the smallest black population about 2 percent while Asians are now abut 18 percent and Hispanics about 34 percent. it could be in the John Schmitz-Unz era that blacks were afraid to moved to Orange County like immigrant Hispanics and Asians did later on. In fact some of the Conservative congressmen in OC that are pretty conservative are aging and districts are now more white which means they probably have another decade but democratic have majorities in Anaheim and Santa and the more Asian city of Irvine leans more toward the Democrats.

  4. Gail James

    I was a Birch kid too. My dad loved Ayn Rand and was one of the tiny group of ministers who preached free enterprise “coming straight from the Bible and Jesus” so was popular with Walter Knott (founder of Knott’s Berry Farm in CA.) My dad was funded by rich folks who printed a Faith and Freedom pamphlet they sent to all the ministers in the land. (I know…I stuffed the envelopes. These were the olden days, the 1960′s.) McCarthy was on our TV from start to finish. My dad died in 1964 and missed seeing all the “fruits” of his labor. Oh, he worked tirelessly to get Right to Work (actually, no rights in work,) laws in Indiana. I moan about all that’s going on now but I watched the rich funding stuff I had no idea would bear so much misery now.

    1. Claire Conner

      Thanks for sharing your story, Gail. I hope you’ll share my story with your friends and invite them to read Wrapped in the Flag. Hopefully, my book and witness like your will help Americans understand extremism and why it’s bad for all of us.

      1. Gail James

        Oh dear, I thought I was sharing my story with your blog readers. I am really not very good with tech stuff…obviously. So sorry.

        1. Claire Conner

          It is shared, Gail. Thanks again.

          1. Gail James

            Thanks! I did post a “like” of your page on my Facebook page.

  5. AndrewGMooney

    “you gotta know your enemy.. you gotta get them in the background..” Gary Dunne – Amerikan Folk Song. You gotta know who’s a corporate Koch-sucker before you make a deal…

  6. Blue Wolf Bosh

    “This libertarian utopia would free businesses and individuals to produce, unrestrained by regulation. Corporate taxes and taxes on the rich would be tiny, allowing vast accumulations of wealth for the wealthy. Workers incomes would be set by corporations without the requirements of minimum wages and union scale.”

    If the workers salaries are continually sacrificed for more and more corporate profits, then they won’t be able to afford any of the products they work to produce.
    They thought of that problem though, which is one reason they globalized the corporations to ensure other markets in countries where they haven’t destroyed the economy by creating a feudal society.

    1. Peter T

      That’s not the reason why they globalised. The economic collapse and the recession triggered by bailing out the banks has indentured the entire worlds labour force for a decade. They don’t care if domestic workers can’t afford the products they produce (or even if they starve/get sick/injured at work) as long as there are currency imbalances (and by extension wage imbalances) the cheapest labour will be utilised either outsourced overseas or imported (migrant) labour to drive established labour costs down. The feudal society is an archaic model which would cost corporations dear to re-establish. As property, there is an implied responsibility to maintain and look after your labour force. Sure, an owner doesn’t have to, but it makes no sense for a farmer not to “look after” his herd ensuring good grazing and innoculating against disease etc. The current situation enables Corporate owners to enjoy most of the benefits of serfdom/slavery with none of the responsibilities for the workforce outside of working hours. Ok. the labour isn’t free, but the exchange of a few paltry coins gives an illusion of self determination and absolves the leasor of any responsibility for the condition of the property being leased

      1. Judith_Priest

        So …. WORSE than Feudalism!

        That’s what I try to tell people, this “FREEDUMB” you think you’re supporting? It is THEIR freedom to absolutely *bone YOU*!

        Slavery is a better deal than we are all going to get. A Master was supposed to feed and house his slaves.

  7. Katrina

    Is Robert Welch related to the former WI State Senator Bob Welch from Red Granite? He is currently a lobbyist for Right Wing causes.

    1. Claire Conner

      Robert Welch had two sons, but I don’t see any connection between the family and your WI Bob Welch. Thanks for asking.

  8. richard.b.chase

    I was horrified to see that Fred’s middle name was Chase. Any idea how that came about?

    1. Claire Conner

      I don’t know. I’m guessing it might have been a family name — but I didn’t find the source.

  9. Judy M. Stock

    I just finished your book and was almost blown away when your oarents and you moved to Marshfield. I graduated from MHS in 1972 and lived there for many years. My mother still lives in the nearby town of Chili. What was the name of your fathers furniture factory?

    1. Claire Conner

      Originally: Modern of Marshfield. In the mid 80s, name changed to Marshfield Furniture. The business still operates under that name.

  10. Tom Richards MAmoderate

    Thank you Claire Connor and Gail James, et al, for shaing these important historical factors in the under-taxing of wealth-shifters, destroying our USA’s middle class.

    1. Gail James

      I was a child at the time of the Birch Society’s ascendance and so one must take that into consideration. What I do recall vividly was the sense that “conservatives are special, persecuted, unique and deserving of favors” and sometimes that happened via Ike who had the “under God” inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance as an olive branch for the Birch Society’s being a little quiet about something else Ike wanted and if memory (again, I was a child,) serves me, was civil rights concessions. The Birch Society is very, very subliminal and quieter now but I’m sure Claire and I would agree, they are working under new umbrellas and names…ALEC, Super Pacs, and on and on and as the 99% is cowed in the somewhat rightful assumption that their job could be shipped overseas in the global economy so the 1% controls us all in fear. I live in WA state and the Boeing contract is exhibit one. I support unions BUT if Boeing plane construction were shipped to SC or MO (and many other states were salivating over the 777X thing,) WA state’s economy would have rippled with convulsions and it would not have been pretty. Caught between the devil and the deep blue sea, I guess. For fun, watch IFC’s new Spoils of Babylon with parody of right wing conservatism and economy. I have to have some fun.

  11. wes

    Loved the book. I’ve coined the term “TeaBircher” to describe the current political offspring of the JBS.

  12. Jane

    Growing up in Birmingham, Alabama during Jim Crow and the Struggle for Civil Rights era when Martin Luther King came to town was not easy. Fred Koch was a prominent presence in those days. He posted billboards around town urging us to Impeach Chief Justice Earl Warren, because Warren upheld Civil Rights Laws. A political relative of mine unseated Bull Connor, the dog and hose brute, who tried to end the protests with acts of sheer insanity. This uncle was one of the “nice” segregationists. On the surface, he appeared to be gentle, reasonable, and kind. Underneath all that, “niceness” laid the heart of a pure supremacist. He spent a lifetime legislating Separate but Equal laws that kept the black man in his proper “place”. This uncle exemplifies the kind of “looking good” racists who even today hide behind expensive suits and smiles. Today they continue to exploit and demonize the poor regardless of race.

  13. Ben

    Claire Conner is a paranoid alarmist. If you’re so afraid of capitalism and free enterprise, then move to Russia.

    1. PamBerg

      She LIVED this, buddy. It is obvious you have NO idea what this entire Birch Society stood for ! Do you even know what Libertarianism is? Long before today’s Fanatical Right, this cult campaigned against Communism that did not exist here, against gays, abortion, Unions , Environment, Immigrants, Social programs, the UN, gun control, etc. Do not embarass yourself out in public. READ the book, and be afraid—be very afraid of the new branch, called the TParty……

      1. Ben

        Are you upset? Let me tell you what I am more afraid of.. far left paranoid, fanatical liberals. The Tea Party is the least of your worries. You should be afraid of the regime now in place in the White House which you probably voted for. Right now there isn’t anything more anti-American freedoms than that.

        1. EMILY

          Ben… You have no grasp on reality. I grew up with parents who were in the same ultra-conservative-fear mongering -communist watching JOHN BIRCH SOCIETY… That Claire did. I am 67 yrs old and retired now. I was always a union member. Honey, you better read the book and study all over the internet and everywhere else about these CROOKED-ASS KOCH BROTHERS. Yoiu better open your eyes to the duplicity these people are perpetrating on everyday , middle class , working people and Those who have been dumped into poverty when their jobs were shipped overseas by these greedy biggoted , selfish and self-serving creeps!!!!!

          1. Gail James

            Thanks you Emily. I knew I loved that name for more reasons than one. You said just the right things to Ben. I too grew up in a John Birch Society loving family. Not so pretty.

  14. Elizabeth McCoy

    Your book brings the missing piece to the gradual destruction of the middle class and why and how it is occurring. Your book should be required reading for every voter in this country. Thank you for your work.

  15. E. Crist

    Since 1980, government is bad, greed is good. And those in great wealth and power have continued to purchase our politics. Wages have stagnated while more and more of our wealth goes to few at the top. Personal debt skyrocketed. NAFTA, Telecommunications Act, Repeal of Glass-Steagle, high stakes gambling by the wealthy with our deposits, homes becomes ATM’s….2008 crash…banks strap on suicide vests threatening to blow up our economy unless we bail them out from their gambling…long term jobless…we fight among each other about god, and guns, and abortions, and gays…and those continuing to steal our wealth laugh at us and know full well that we will do nothing to stop them.

    Neo-feudalism is fast approaching and we’ll accept it as long as we can get the newest iPhone….I’m not hopeful of our future.

    1. Ben

      Government isn’t bad as a principle and Reagan never said it was. Bad leaders make it bad and Reagan warned of this kind of leadership. The founding fathers meant it to be small in it’s function and stay out of the way of peoples lives. Since 2008, it is now being transformed into a huge machine like the Matrix. It will control everyone and everything. The old adage “all good things must come to an end” is true. There is hope for a future, but if you’ve placed your hope on what happens on this earth only, then you’re short sighted and you’ve doomed yourself.

      1. ernie

        Ben: It is odd that you refer to Ronald Reagan since Mrs. Robert Welch (Marian Welch) ended her relationship with the Birch Society because she was angered by the way new leaders of the JBS were savaging Reagan in the pages of the JBS magazine, The New American. Furthermore, the JBS has described Reagan as “a phony conservative” and the current President of the JBS (John McManus) declared at one time that Reagan was “a lackey of the Communists”.

    2. cynthia curran

      On trade, some of the Birchers are anti-free trade agreements and are called paleo-conservatives, Pat Buchnaan would come to mind and I believe Ron Paul opposed NAFTA since it was a government agreed trade treaty. Also, the more anti-immirgant stance is with the paleo-conservatives that want more tougher e-verify and fining companies compared to the more libertarian elements. The right does have some splits on guest worker programs and trade agreements. Pat Buchanan wants to get rid of federal income state and replaced it with lots of different tariffs which is a hard position on the right because about 70 percent is in the free trade camp.

      1. John Bevilaqua

        “When the roles of Wickliffe Draper and his Pioneer Fund in shaping and influencing world events to advance their Agendas are fully recognized (Eugenics, anti-Immigration, Segregation, World Wars, Assassinations and anti-unionism) are fully understood, every history book ever written will have to be re-written from scratch.” – Paul Weyrich

        1. John Bevilaqua

          Forgot to mention that Wickliffe Draper of The Pioneer Fund from Hopedale, MA about 15-20 miles from the Belmont, MA headquarters of Robert Welch was one of the principal financial backers of The John Birch Society, Human Events Magazine in Washington, DC, The American Mercury, The Liberty Lobby and almost every other Right Wing extremist publication of that era. The deGanahls (via Chalres deGanahl Koch) at Ganahl Mills in Georgia would have been customers of the Draper Company which had a world-wide monopoly on automated textile loom equipment for almost 100 years from perhaps 1860 to about 1960. Wickliffe Draper was probably the paradigm and model used by Charles Koch and the Koch family to emulate how to advance the Right Wing agenda in America. Draper Company was the main reason why child labor laws were instituted in America. The Draper agenda included anti-Immigration, anti-Social Security, anti-Union activity, anti-Integration, anti-Communism, McCarthyism, anti-Liberalism, pro-Hitlerism and many more Right Wing causes. Draper sponsored the Model Eugenics Laws in America which led to the involuntary sterilization of almost 250,000 individuals from 1926-1976. See: Against Their Will by the Winston-Salem Journal. http://againsttheirwillbook.com/Against_Their_Will/Home.html

  16. Kathleen Wallace

    The playbook.
    Fourteen Defining
    Characteristics Of Fascism
    By Dr. Lawrence Britt
    Source Free Inquiry.co
    5-28-3

    Dr. Lawrence Britt has examined the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia) and several Latin American regimes. Britt found 14 defining characteristics common to each:

    1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism – Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays.

    2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights – Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of “need.” The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc.

    3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause – The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc.

    4. Supremacy of the Military – Even when there are widespread
    domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized.

    5. Rampant Sexism – The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Divorce, abortion and homosexuality are suppressed and the state is represented as the ultimate guardian of the family institution.

    6. Controlled Mass Media – Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common.

    7. Obsession with National Security – Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses.

    8. Religion and Government are Intertwined – Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government’s policies or actions.

    9. Corporate Power is Protected – The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.

    10. Labor Power is Suppressed – Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed.

    11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts – Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts and letters is openly attacked.

    12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment – Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations.

    13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption – Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.

    14. Fraudulent Elections – Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.

  17. Jack Ruhe

    Recntly I lost my oldest brother who professed strongly the many principles of the Birch Society. Despite denying any association with the Birch Society, his 2 sons in California remember vividly of many Birch members coming to his house. He was so brainwashed that he left 80% of his very large estate to off-shoots of the Birch Society to be used to teach others in this brand of liberatarianism. The remaining 20% went to agencies to combat dementia and leukemia, and nothing for his two sons or grandsons. Despite the beneficiary of many government programs, he denied it, and resisted paying taxes.

    1. cynthia curran

      Not unbelievable La was much more conservative about 40 years ago and Orange and San Diego where known as far right counties in the 1960′s compared to even today with demographic changes. A lot of the hard right while still in southern California has moved to Texas and places like ID, a story was on it on a religious conservative that left the OC for ID since Orange County changed a lot.

  18. Mathew Rule

    Kathleen Wallace’s synopsis of Dr. Britts work is the most compelling and frightening description of current right wing tenants that I have read in a very long time. All of the mechanisms described are boldly and baldly in place in the U.S. today. I would add one to our present situation: hostility to science, whether it be established economic theory, inconvenient climate science or facts in conflict with religious beliefs.

  19. Robert Caldwell

    Thank youi, this is informative and important.

    1. John Bevilaqua

      I have recently completed an Amazon paperback documenting what Richard Condon described in his novel (1959) and movie (1962), The Manchurian Candidate, about the roles of several members of The John Birch Society in the plot to assassinate President John F. Kennedy as early as 1958 when he was a Senator from Massachusetts. Richard Condon identifies prominent Birchers like Maj. Gen. Edwin A. Walker involved later with the Ole Miss Riots, Gen. Charles A. Willoughby who was Gen. Douglas MacArthur’s Intelligence head for decades and Robert J. Morris who was called “the real force behind McCarthyism” by Whittaker Chambers. All of them were prominent in the Dallas John Birch Society leadership hierarchy. It has been recently discovered that Gen. Walker was related to the deGanahl family from Austria who provided the Koch family with financial support during their early years. As a sign of gratitude Fred Koch named his son Charles deGanahl Koch. The JFK plotters made plans to hold a meeting in Wichita, KS shortly after the assassination, the home of Rock Island Oil and Gas, the Koch’s oil company and the location where The American Mercury was being published at the time by Rev. Gerald B. Winrod, known as “The Jayhawk Nazi” during World War II. Please consider reading either the Kindle, Nook or paperback version available at: http://www.amazon.com/JFK-Final-Solution-Scares-ebook/dp/B008QRVYHC/ref=pd_rhf_se_p_t_1

      1. Gail James

        Good information and the little missteps of history are intriguing. To me the fact that Lee Harvey Oswald attempted to assassinate Gen. Walker (he survived and the police never figured out who his attacker was but Oswald now had the practice he needed to make a better shot at JFK,) makes me go, “What if?” Gen. Walker was not a friend to America at all.

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